Presentation

Warning: Before you know this business, it is noteworthy that the following items are not part of a business plan, but the profile of the environment in which the employer will receive a business opportunity as described below. The aim of all these issues is to demystify and give an overview of how a company is positioned in the market. What are the variables that affect this type of business? How these market variables behave? Increasing the information needed to take the initiative to carry out?

Concrete blocks are prefabricated elements used for building walls, also called walls. Generally the blocks are linked together by the application of mortar, once dried, give the whole rigidity and stability. The mortars are generally mixtures of cement and sand.

Concrete blocks, in turn, are made of a mixture of cement and aggregate pressed. This aggregate may be sand, gravel, stone powder and the like. It is common to use a mixture of two or three types of aggregates, thereby improving the quality and cost of the block. The choice of households also depends on the supply of the blocks in the vicinity of the factory. The freight cost is very relevant in this case.

The concrete blocks have emerged in the twentieth century as an alternative material to clay brick construction. In Brazil, concrete blocks began to be made at the end of 50. From the 60s, consumption and acceptance evolved rapidly since it represents the best choice in many situations. And in others, it is the only option, because the production of clay bricks is non-existent or very small in many regions.

Currently there are several types of blocks for various types of application. These blocks are produced in factories that use processes of all kinds, ranging from small boats pressed huge fully automated industrial plants.

Market

There are no consolidated data on total production blocks in Brazil. The most consistent finding is an estimate of the institution Block Brazil - Brazilian Association of concrete blocks there are 1,300 manufacturers in the country.

Also according to Brazil block, concrete block market continued strong growth in the construction market in Brazil. The production capacity of its members, 46 major manufacturers, reached 56.3 million units per month. And considering the 150 largest manufacturers in the country, the capacity has increased about 40% from 2010 to 2012, he came to the marks of 92 million units and 2.7 million m2 of floor latching per month .


This large increase in production capacity meant that sales forecasts for 2013 point to a stability. Some industry leaders even report concern about the situation because in some states of the capacity is greater than demand. Both can cause falling prices due to competition between companies, so it is difficult, and the entry of new manufacturers.

The main buyers of concrete blocks are the building and deposits of building materials.

Deposits, in turn, sell to small contractors, small contractors and individuals. The retail market is also exploited directly by many blocks factories.

A small factory block should also focus on the retail market, as it allows you to practice better prices than those offered in tenders for large orders.

Installing any company must be preceded by market studies. And it becomes especially important in this case because of the strong competition.

If the focus is on building large, the aim should be a high productivity, low cost and high volume sales. This requires greater investment.

If the focus is on the retail market, the challenge is to find an area of ​​town that is building rapidly, it is feasible to install a block factory and that competition is low and healthy.

Location

The ideal place depends on the size and market to be exploited.

Larger plants require large areas in regions that allow industrial facilities. This type of development generates noise and dust and traffic impacts with the constant movement of trucks of raw materials and finished products. This severely limits the available areas, often in peripheral regions of the urban fabric. And it also has to be as close as possible to the cement and aggregates suppliers and customers. It is a challenge in terms of logistics.

smaller plants should seek the retail market and higher prices. The challenge, as mentioned, is to find an area of ​​town that is building rapidly, it is feasible to install a small block factory and that competition is low and healthy. Therefore, the plant is now also a point of sale in retail trade at competitive prices, and there are no middlemen.

In all cases, the challenge is to find areas of medium and large, in regions where the law allows the installation of this type of development and the flow of trucks is feasible and easy.

legal and specific requirements

Processing of mineral products and generate impacts on the environment, even small businesses should be aware of environmental legislation.

The first concern is with the origin of the raw material, which must come from licensees for the environment. The second concern is with the proper treatment of waste, including water used in the cleaning of equipment. Finally are the impacts on the premises, such as dust, noise and truck traffic.

Since many aspects that must be considered and complex legislation, the advice of experienced licensing of this type of activity is the key. The first step in this direction could be a visit to the licensing bodies of the city council, which will be the first instructions, including how to find professional advisers to the whole process.

Another important professional is the accountant who will make the formal part of the records. Some accountants do the licensing board. Talk to him in the first place can be the first step.
If the obstacles mentioned above demonstrate surmountable, you must start the process with the submission requirements common to all companies, namely:

a) Registration on the following organs
• Chamber of Commerce;
• Internal Revenue Service (RUC);
• State Finance Department;
• Municipal Government for the business license;
• Fit to Employer Union;
• Social System Connectivity -
• Fire brigade.

b) the entry into the process of environmental health and licensing of the competent bodies

It is recommended that all records are made with the help of an accountant.

Follow the main federal law on licensing. The laws of your state and municipality must also be identified and studied.

Leys and regulations of Brazil:

• Law No. 6938 of August 31, 1981: Provides for the National Environmental Policy, its effects and mechanisms of formulation and implementation, and other matters;
• Law No. 7804 of July 18, 1989: Changes in Law No. 6938 of August 31, 1981, which establishes the National Environmental Policy, its effects and mechanisms of formulation and implementation, No. 7735 Act of February 22, 1989, Law No. 6803 of July 2, 1980, and other measures;
• Law No. 9605 of February 12, 1998: Law of environmental crimes - expected behavior derived from criminal and administrative sanctions and activities harmful to the environment, and other matters;
• CONAMA Resolution No. 001 of January 23, 1986: Sets the EIA / RIMA;
• CONAMA Resolution No. 010, of December 6, 1990: Environmental Licensing;
• CONAMA Resolution No. 307 of July 5, 2002: Establishes guidelines, criteria and procedures for the management of construction waste.

Another important legal aspect is to meet the technical standards for the production of concrete blocks set by ABNT - Brazilian Association of Technical Standards:

• NBR 6136/2006 - hollow concrete block masonry mass without structural function;
• NBR 7173/1982 - plain concrete masonry building block without structural function called "sealing block";
• NBR 8827/1988 - refractories - Determination of retention time of water in the mortar;
• NBR 8491/1984 - Massive brick cement floor;
• NBR 8492/1984 - huge soil-cement bricks - Determination of compression strength and water absorption;
• NBR 8949/1985 - masonry walls - compression test;
• NBR 10832/1989 - brick making soil-cement mass with the use of hand press;
• NBR 10.833 / 1989 - manufacture of solid brick and hollow soil cement using the hydraulic press block;
• NBR-12118/2006 - Test method - blocks of plain concrete masonry.

Structure

The structure of a concrete block factory is basically composed of:

Downloading and saving Patio
It's where you receive and store sand, gravel, crushed stone powder and cement. This material may not be in direct contact with the ground, if it is not contaminated. You can also vary, from 300 m² to 600 m². It should be covered. If this is not possible, you should ficxar covered by tarpaulins.

Processing Sector
It is the site of processing of the blocks, or are machines that convert the aggregates in the final product. It also includes storage of supplies and equipment. The space required depends on the desired output, types of products and the level of automation. You can also vary, from 200 m² to 400 m². It should be covered.

Curing Area
This is where the process is directed to hydration of concrete, having its moisture gradually to gain compressive strength, low water absorption after it has made. You can also vary, from 600 m² to 800 m².

The storage area delivery
This is where the finished parts are stored and loaded onto trucks and sent to its destination. You can also vary, from 600 m² to 1,200 m².

Personal Area
They are offices and facilities of the production staff as locker rooms and cafeteria administrative and commercial. It will vary with the number of employees. Overall, 100 m² is sufficient.

Personal

Next it is considered the following characteristics:

• Average selling price
• The production of blocks
• Monthly production
• Monthly billing
• Low level of automation
• outsourced shipping.

They employ between 10 and 14 employees, in addition to members, as follows:

03.02 - Business and Administration (including partners)
06.05 - Production
1.2 - General Service
2.3 - Loading

Staff costs, including fees and incidental expenses

Equipamentos

Equipamentos needed to mount a factory of blocks:

Production:


• Hydraulic Machine
• 05 Mold
• 01 Mixer
• 01 Conveyor
• 1000 Stretcher

Workstation for each administrative officer:

• Table

• Ergonomic chair President

• Computer

• Easy chair customers

• Utensils as stapler, journal, pens, etc.

Shared items:

• Closet

• Printer

• Phone

• Bowl

Commercial:

• Customer Mesa

• Chairs for customers

• sofa waiting


Raw Materials


The main raw materials are:
• Sand;
• dust from crushed stone, gravel;
• Cement.

With regard to the manufacture of concrete blocks there are plenty of models. Listed below are some of them hereby added 1cm size of the blocks:


• sealing block 14 x 19 x 39;
• sealing block 19 x 19 x 39;
• sealing block with the bottom of 14 x 19 x 39;
• sealing block with the bottom of 19 x 19 x 39;
• Structural Block 14 x 19 x 39;
• Structural Block 19 x 19 x 39;
• Block half 14 x 19 x 19;
• Block half 19 x 19 x 19;
• Channel 14 x 19 x 39;
• Channel 19 x 19 x 39;
• Half channel 14 x 19 x 19;
• Half channel 19 x 19 x 19;

For modeling manufacturing it is necessary to identify which models are the most popular in your area.

some products that can be produced in the factory of concrete brick is listed below:


building block: they are concrete blocks (blocks) that are used in environments sealing, which appear similar to other concrete bricks, both physical and appearance. However, the building blocks have thicker walls, providing greater resistance to compressive forces, enabling use as a structural element in construction. This masonry offers good security and the economy, as long as their applicability and installation (fixing) are met. Use of dispensing building blocks, buildings, columns and support beams, as these building blocks mentioned override this requirement. It can be applied in the construction of retaining walls, small high-rise buildings, home, sheds, pools, etc ..

Sealing block: used to fill gaps in structured buildings. should never be used with the function of the mounting structure. In the design of architectural and civil construction design it must be properly scale the size of the openings, so that it is possible to accurately calculate the size of the concrete blocks. Apply this product in boxes of lights, buildings, shops, warehouses and common walls.

Slipt block: used to fill gaps in structured buildings and constructions. They are colored concrete blocks with vertical stripes, ideal for facades and interiors. This type of product provides a fine and beautiful finish with economy and practicality, since these are already produced blocks of colors, which creates a high level of finish.

Grooved Block: block dividing like, changing only its finish which is not smooth, but with slots product.

Mobile concrete block autoclave: This product is the result of the reaction between lime, cement, sand and aluminum powder. The mixture is subjected to a curing process in a steam chamber at high pressure and temperature, which leads to calcium silicate, making aerated concrete is an excellent product performance in construction. This block of concrete is still little used in Brazil. It is lightweight, easy to handle and very durable. It can be used to seal the execution of masonry or reinforced masonry. Not for use in the construction of buildings over four stories.

Organization Production Process

The process of producing a concrete block factory is basically composed of:

Purchase of raw materials
It takes place along providers sand quarries that supply plants gravel and cement dust.

Receipt and storage of raw materials
It takes place in the courtyard of handling and storage of aggregates, namely, sand, gravel, crushed stone powder and cement. It is made by the production team of assistants.

Dosing Procedure
It is made by the production team, which realize the measurement of the mass elements and put manually on the mats.

Mixing and forming mass
It consists of production machines operated by company employees. In general it is a continuous production line, which starts by mixing the components, obtaining a homogeneous mass, passing through the vibro-pressing the mass which forms the impression.

Curing Area
After the finished product is removed from the machine via trucks with pneumatic tires, eliminating the impact ground to the reference to the place of healing, to be a wet room with no ventilation, away from the wind and sun, prevent drying and variability. It is made by the production team.

Finished Product Storage
The finished products are placed in an organized way trading stocks, which are easily identified, loading and unloading. It is made by the production team of assistants.

Sale
It is carried out by the commercial sector. In general, the main customers are other businesses, especially shop and store building materials and large construction companies. The most common distributors are the shops and stores of building materials, which in turn sell to small and medium-sized construction companies, and consumers.

Shipping and delivery of goods
All products sold must be separated, unloaded of the population, have cast their invoice will be loaded in the transport vehicle and be delivered. This operation consists of people from all areas.

Charges and Payments - Financial Control
We have to get the customer in time or issue an invoice and deliver later. For the invoice, bank collection is the best system and can do everything through the Internet. At the other end, you need to pay suppliers, employees and other items. Overall, this is all done by the same person who cares about what the whole financial part under the close supervision of the partners.

General Administration
There is also work, accounting and legal bureaucracies, which generally carried out by the same person for financial control in the case of a small business.

Business development
A company that wants to grow has to perform non-routine, including stocks:


• Find new products;
• Finding new markets;
• Opening branches;
• Improve management processes;


This is the role of the entrepreneur.

Automation

The industrial production of concrete blocks has optional features with a high level of automation. There are machines on the market capable of operating from the mixture to the organization of the blocks on pallets for sale. But high investment and high demand is required, that is, escapes the reality of investment here exemplified.

Automation is recommended in these cases is the management, made possible by a complete management software called ERP. This type of software integrates all these processes. For example, when the buyer makes a purchase and put the system in place, the amount of the bill and go to the module "Accounts payable". When the seller makes a sale, the release of the amount and go to the module "Accounts receivable" or "Cashier" if was in sight. And in both cases is low given module and "values." The production thereof. Everything that is produced is released into the "population".

Commercial automation is adequate, but not essential in small businesses. What is essential is a good computerized financial control income and expenditure and control report on costs, revenues and profits. The other elements can be controlled with separate worksheets.

Several of these management control software are available for free on the Internet and one of them may be sufficient for your company. But the ideal is to have a proper software, it really easy to manage your business, even if it is not free.

Distribution Canaless

The main customers of a factory of concrete blocks are:

• Large construction companies;
• Shops and stores supplies.

Deposits of building materials are the retail businesses of small and medium enterprises and end-users build, but depending on the location, this can occur directly at the factory.

Acquire material currently bidding for large housing projects are a potential market, but requires highly competitive prices.

Investment

The size of the total investment are considered in a factory of concrete blocks with the following characteristics:

• Average selling price
• The production of blocks
• Monthly production
• Monthly billing
• Low level of automation;
• The total area of ​​3,000 m2 Property
• 1,500 m2 of covered area;
• Administration of 100 m2;
• outsourced shipping.


This value must also add the following expenses:

• Artesian well
• Installation of equipment
• Pre-operating expenses such as the opening of the company, projects, consulting, branding, recruitment and selection of personnel, etc.
• Working capital for the initial action of the goods, the provision for invoiced sales and operating loss in the first months and technical reserve for possible problems.


Working Capital

Working capital is the amount of money the company should be maintained to ensure smooth flow of cash cycles. Working capital immobilized works with an amount in cash (including banks) company to support fluctuations in cash.

Working capital is regulated by the deadlines applied by the company, which are providers received midterms (PMF); term storage media (SMEs) and the average time given to customers (PMCC).
The longer the period granted to customers and increased the storage period, the greater its need for working capital. So keep minimum stocks regulated and meet the time limit for providing the customer can greatly enhance the need for cash immobilization cash.

If the medium term received from suppliers of raw materials, labor, rent, taxes and other are larger than average storage periods added to the medium term given to the customer to pay for the products, the need for working capital it will be positive, that is, keeping money available is required to support the oscillations of the box. In this case, an increase in sales also means an increase of plug-in working capital. Therefore, the reported income of the company must be at least partially reserved to supplement this need for housing.

If the opposite occurs, that is, he received from suppliers deadlines are larger than the average term storage and the time given to customers for payment, the need for working capital is negative. In this case, you should pay attention to the amount of money available in hand is needed to meet future payment obligations (suppliers, taxes). Therefore, excessive withdrawals and assets can make the company will have problems with their future payments.

The need for working capital can be summarized as follows:

Arena stock, stone dust, gravel and cement
This is what you have already paid stocked merchandise. You can work with a value provider. For example, 60 days to pay to buy and sell at sight or 30 days. But it is not recommended. Ideally buy discount view and sell futures on interest. And they have paid value is a reserve for crisis. In relation to population size, only the practice say it's the best.


operating loss
If the operating loss is virtually certain at the start of the activities, but can also occur in the stages of the life of the company. To address start and low periods of the company is necessary to have a technical reserve applied in the financial market for this purpose. Take money with interest crisis is a big step to make matters worse.

Posible problems
It's called technical reserve for contingencies. A fire uninsured, unexpected action job, an unexpected legal requirement may require additional resources. Ideally you should have a reservation, but if the company is making a profit, seek relief in banks will not be so traumatic.

costs

The costs can be divided into two categories and then their respective articles:

General expenses
They are the ones that do not vary with the sale. It sells more or less, you pay the same value:


• Rent;
• Water;
• Light;
• Phone;
• Staff, expenses and associated costs;
• Public rates;
• Accountant.


They are the most worrisome costs and should be done only when absolutely necessary.

Variable costs

They range from the sale. It sells more, pay more. It sells less, you pay less.


• Purchase goods (replacement);
• Other accessories supplies;
• Electricity;
• Depreciation and maintenance of equipment and facilities;
• Shipping costs;
• Taxes;
• Trade Commission.

small lucrative industries have varying total cost of between 55% and 65% of revenues. The fixed cost is between 20% and 25% of revenues. Operating profit is between 10% and 20%.

Diversification / Added Value

Block machines have a facilitator, which can produce many different products using the same raw material and labor. The same machine can result in the manufacture of various products such as:


• soil used in paving streets, squares, pavements, industrial yards interlock;
• bloquetas;
• Tile;
• tiles;
• Half wire;
• Mosaics cement.

Marketing

A factory of concrete blocks can be based disclosure of its products only in the following items:

perspectives
Stores and deposits of building materials and construction are a specific clientele, can generate uninterrupted supply contracts, even if they are less profitable. And there are projects that can be easily located and affected by direct marketing. Views and prospects are the best ways, because they are relatively inexpensive and effective. Periodically it must be reinforced, sending more leads and personal emails. Avoid emails FMCG, unwanted spam.

Point
If it is a small factory and can be installed in an area with good flow of people on the street, the facade of it should be explored with signs and warnings and retail voice mail system will be deployed.

Website
Being on the Internet is critical because it is consulted by any company seeking suppliers. Publish a website using modern techniques that facilitate location by search engines like Google. This is essential.

Source: SEBRAE / BRASIL